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posted by GabsSaw
Pachycephalosaurs were among some of the last Dinosaur groups to appear. They lived 75-65 mya.


They are named after one of the best-known members of the group, Pachycephalosaurus.

Pachycephalosaurus means "thick-headed reptile," due to the domed and hugely thickened bone on the superiore, in alto of its skull--like a cyclist's crash helmet.

About 15 feet long from nose to tail, Pachycephalosaurus lived in Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

Stegoceras, which also lived in North America, was about 8 feet long, with a body the size of a goat.

Homalocephale was about 10 feet long and had a flatter skull. It lived in East Asia.

Pachycephalosaurs may have defended themselves da loweringtheir heads and charging at their enemies.

At breeding time, the males may have engaged in head-butting contests, as some pecora, pecore and goats do today.
posted by GabsSaw
Stegosaurus was the largest of the stegosaur group. Its fossils were found mainly in present-day Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Like most of its group, Stegosaurus lived toward the end of the Jurassic period, about 150 mya.

Stegosaurus was about 25-30 feet long from nose to tail and probably weighed più than 2 tons.

Its most striking feature was the row of large, roughly triangular bony plates along its back.

The name Stegosaurus means "roof reptile". This is because it was first thought that its bony plates lay flat on its back, overlapping like the tiles on a roof.

It is now thought that the back...
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posted by GabsSaw
Dilophosaurus probably weighed about 1,100 pounds--as much as the biggest polar bears today.

Eustreptospondylus means "well-curved backbone". This is due to the arrangement of its spine sa seen in its fossils.

The remains of 60 Allosaurus were found in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry in Utah.

According to some experts, Ornitholestes may have had a slight ridge o crest on its nose. Other experts disagree.

Oviraptor had two bony spikes inside its mouth that it may have used to crack open eggs when it closed its jaws.

On each foot, a Dromaeosaur had a large, curved claw that it could swing in...
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posted by GabsSaw
A small, wormlike creature called Pikaia is thought to be the ancestor of all backboned animals.

Its fossil remains were found in the 530- million-year-old mudstone deposits of the Burgess Shale in Canada.

Pikaia was the first known chordate. All backboned animali belong to this group as well as marine animali called tunicates and acraniates.

Pikaia was 2 inches long, with a notochord running around its body-- a kind of primitive spine that gave its body flexibility.

The notochord also allowed the animal's simple muscles to work against it, and the animal's body organs to hang from it.

Pikaia is...
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posted by GabsSaw
Vascular plants are più suited to living on drier land than mosses and liverworts.

They have branching stems with tubelike walls that carry water and nutrients.

These stems and walls also mean the plants can stand tall. Vascular plants have spores (reproductive cells, like seeds)-the taller the plant, the più widely it can disperse its spores.

One of the first known vascular plants was Cooksonia. It was about 2 inches tall, with a forked stem.

Paleontologists discovered fossil remains of Cooksonia in England.

Rhynie in Scotland is one site where lots of vascular plant fossils have been found....
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